Meaning, Nature and Scope of Social Science
Social Science is a generic term covering the scientific study of man. It is a discipline or branch of science that deals with the socio-cultural aspects of human behaviour. The social sciences generally include cultural anthropology, economics, political science, sociology, criminology, and social psychology.
What are the seven social sciences?
The seven social sciences are: anthropology, economics, geography, history, political science, sociology, and psychology.
Definition of Social Science:
Social science is defined as any scholastic discipline or scientific field that investigates human society.
According to James High “Social Sciences as those bodies of learning and study which recognizes the simultaneous and mutual action of physical and no-physical stimuli which produce social relation”.
According to Charles Beard “Social Sciences are a body of knowledge and thought pertaining to human affairs as distinguished from sticks, stones, stars and physical objects”.
Bining & Bining defines Social Science as “the subject that relate to the origin, organization, and development of human society, especially to man in his association with other men”.
Social Studies is a field of study which deals with man, his relation with other men and his environment; its content is drawn from several social sciences. It is a course of study including anthropology, history, geography, economics, political science, sociology, law, civics, etc.
Definition of Social Studies:
According to Michaelis, “the Social Studies are concerned with man and his interaction with his social and physical environment; they deal with human relationships; the central function of the social studies is identical with the central purpose of education – the development of democratic citizenship”.
National Council for the Social Studies defined Social Studies as “the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence".
Nature of Social Science:
The real nature of this discipline can be well understood by analyzing the above definitions.
1. A unique combination of various disciplines.
2. A study of human relationships.
3. A study of man’s development through ages.
4. A realistic course of study.
5. It forms an important part of the core-curriculum.
6. It includes commitment to action.
7. Aims at preparing the learner for wholesome social living.
Scope of Social Studies:
The scope of Social Studies is very vast and wide as wide as the world itself and as lengthy as the history of man. According to Michaelis “the breadth of social studies programme should provide for a variety of experiences so that the child’s learning will be well rounded and well balanced”.
The main points are as follows:
1. Vast and wide as the world. It is as wide as the world and s long as the world. It is the study of human relationships in areas such as:
a. People of one’s own nationality and people across the world.
b. People and various kinds of institutions.
c. People and Earth.
d. People and Time.
e. People and resources.
2. A functional study of Natural and Physical sciences and Fine Arts.
Social Science - Natural Science – Physical Science are inter related
Development, change, etc. in one field effect the others
3. A study of current affairs.
4. A study leading to International Understanding.
5. Practical study of various resources.
Similarities between Social studies and Social Sciences:
· Social Science and Social Studies are not only related generically. They also share common body of content.
· Both are related to society and have same aims and objectives.
· Both emphasis on inculcating good qualities like truthfulness, sincerity, etc. of human being.
· Both helps to understand the various aspects of the society and utilize them.
· Both are must be accurate and reliable- only then can be useful.
Difference between Social Studies and Social Science:
1. The focus and emphasis of both are different:- When a student studies geography as a social science, he has to focus his attention on the methods of geography, tools and concepts, etc. Wile studying geography as a social studies, he should focus attention on using ideas and concepts from geography, to understand man, how his efforts to control his environment have led to a better life, how various geographical factors influence his life, etc.
2. Social Sciences represent an adult approach, while the social studies represent a child-approach: Social sciences are to be taught at the high school and college level. Social Studies are simplified portions of social sciences to be taught at primary level.
3. Social sciences are the theory part of human affairs; social studies are the practice part of human affairs: Social sciences are large bodies of organized and authentic knowledge representing human affairs. While social studies gives an insight into various aspects of man and society.
4. The social sciences are far larger than the social studies: The purpose of the social sciences is to find out new truth about human relationships; the purpose of the social studies is to guide adolescents in their learning of selected portions of what has been discovered in social sciences.
5. In social sciences, social utility is the primary object; in social studies instructional utility is the primary object.
6. Social sciences are the part of cultural of knowledge having direct bearing on man’s activities in any field, Social studies offers learning situation and insight into all knowledge.