30 April 2018


Social studies and social science can be easy to confuse. Though Social they are sounds like two similar concepts, and deal with some of the same subject matter. They are two different fields of study. However, there are some key differences which distinguish the two terms so that they cannot be used interchangeably. In this article, we are going to look at the difference between social science and social studies. 

What is Social Science? 
Social Science is a subject area that studies the society and the relationships among individuals within a society. Social Science is categorized into many branches such as Geography (study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena), Anthropology (study of humans), History (study of past), Economics (study of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services), political science(study of theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior.) etc. 

What is Social Studies? 
Social studies can be introduced as the study of both social sciences and humanities. According to U.S American National Council for the Social Studies, “Social studies, is the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence.” However, social studies is most often used as a name of the course taught at schools. 

What are the difference between Social Science 
and Social studies? 

1. The main difference between social science and social studies is in their intended purposes. The social sciences are branches of study that analyze society and the social interactions of people within a society. Subjects that fall under the umbrella of social sciences are: anthropology, history, economics, geography, and many others that explore societal relations. 
Social studies is the systematic study of an integrated body of content drawn from the social sciences and the humanities. It enables students to develop their knowledge and understandings of the diverse and dynamic nature of society and of how interactions occur among cultures, societies, and environments. 

2. Social science is more streams oriented. It's the science of the society; the in depth knowledge and systematic study of each branch of social transaction. It is empirical and based on various scientific methods of deduction to arrive at a conclusion based on facts. 
Social studies is the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote effective citizenry. Social studies are subjects most frequently taught to school students to help them understand how to be effective citizens of society. 

3. Social Science, as the name implies, deals with the science of society utilizing the gathering of data and analysis of that data. Whereas Social Studies normally deals with the observation of Society. Here students develop and apply skills as they investigate society, explore issues, make decisions, and work cooperatively with others. 

4. Social sciences are taught under higher studies curriculum whereas, social studies are subjects most frequently taught to school based students to help them understand how to be effective citizens of society. 

5. The core difference between social science and social studies exist in their purpose; in social science, you study the society and social life of human groups while in social studies, you study both social science and humanities in order to promote effective citizenry. 

6. Social Studies is the study of all phases of societies whereas Social Science is the inference of those studies with the intention of solving problems within a society, which may lead to the ultimate development of the society as a whole. 

7. Social science is the field of sciences concerned with the studies of the social life of human groups and individuals. Social studies is a term used to describe the broad study of various fields which involves past and current human behavior and interactions 

8. Another difference is that Social science is divided into many branches while social studies is divided into two main categories of humanities and social sciences. 

9. Social science dates back to the 18th century while social studies is a relatively new term. 

We can conclude therefore that even though social studies make use of social science disciplines, it has different orientation. The study of social studies should remain an integral part of the educational system at all levels. We conclude that if the social studies and social sciences did not permeate and cooperate with each other in the long run human beings and society would fail to develop smoothly.

10 April 2017


Teachers can involve children in various activities so that they can learn certain concepts through lived experiences. For example, children can learn about the cooperative movement by running a cooperative themselves. Schools should be flexible in their hours of opening.
For example, learning about the moon should include the possibility of being able to watch the moon from the school premises; therefore the need for the school to be open on occasion after dark.
It is necessary to revitalize social science teaching, to help the learner acquire knowledge and skills in an interactive environment. It has often been noticed that there is an increasing gap between the promises made in the curriculum and what is happening at the level of the child’s perception. It is important that the process of learning should promote the spirit of inquiry and creativity among both children and teachers.
The teacher is an important medium of transacting the curriculum and simplifying concepts in a language comprehensible to students. Therefore, teaching should
be seen as an opportunity for teachers and students to learn together, thus developing a democratic culture within institutions. In order to make the process of
learning participatory, there is a need to shift from the mere imparting of information to involvement in debate and discussion. This approach to learning will keep both learners and teachers alive to social realities.

Knowledge of social sciences is vital for many reasons.  It enables children:
• to understand the society in which they live -to learn how society is structured, managed, and governed, and also about the forces seeking to transform and redirect society in various ways.
• to appreciate the values enshrined in the Indian Constitution such as justice, liberty, equality and fraternity and the unity and integrity of the nation and the building of a socialist, secular and democratic society.
• to grow up as active, responsible, and reflective members of society.
• to learn to respect differences of opinion, lifestyle, and cultural practices.
• to question and examine received ideas, institutions, and practices. to acquire pleasure in reading, by providing them with enjoyable reading material.
• to undertake activities that will help them develop social and life skills and make them understand that these skills are important for social interaction.
In textbooks and in the classroom, the content, language, and images should be comprehensible, gender-sensitive, and critical of social hierarchies and inequalities of all kinds.

Primary Stage
The objectives of teaching social studies at the primary stage are:
• To develop in the child skills of observation, identification, and classification.
• To develop in the child a holistic understanding of the environment with emphasis on the interrelationship of the natural and the social environments.
• To sensitise the child to social issues and develop in him/her a respect for difference and diversity.

Classes I and II
For these primary grades, the natural and the social environments will be explained as integral parts of languages and mathematics. Children should be engaged in activities to understand the natural and social environments through illustrations from the physical, biological, social, and cultural spheres. The language used should be gender-sensitive.
Teaching methods should be in a participative and discussion-oriented mode. For example, story telling, painting, dance, song, and music can all be part of the teaching-learning process. A Teachers’ Handbook should be prepared with examples of activities that promote the development of concepts and teach sensitivity towards environmental concerns.

Classes III to V
For these grades, the subject Environment Studies (EVS) will be introduced and will be constituted by a discussion of the natural and the social environments. In the study of the natural environment, emphasis will be on its preservation and the importance of saving it from degradation.  The fact that the social environment is constructed by human beings will be emphasised. Children will begin to be sensitised to social issues like poverty, child labour, illiteracy, caste and class inequalities, in rural and urban areas. The content should reflect the day-to-day experiences of children and their life worlds.
At this stage, all concepts taught should be activity-based. Activities and textual material should complement each other. Activities should be related to examples from local surroundings. A Teachers’ Handbook should be prepared that gives clear directions on how to handle different topics.

09 April 2017

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)


Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) - National Mission for Secondary Education- is a centrally sponsored scheme of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, for the development of secondary education in public schools throughout India. It was launched in March 2009. The implementation of the scheme has started from 2009-2010 to provide conditions for an efficient growth, development and equity for all. The scheme includes a multidimensional research, technical consulting, various implementations and funding support.

The principal objectives are to enhance quality of secondary education and increase the total enrollment rate from 52% (as of 2005–2006) to 75% in five years, i.e. from 2009–2014. It aims to provide universal education for all children between 15–16 years of age. The funding from the central ministry is provided through state governments, which establish separate implementing agencies. 


The vision for secondary education is to make good quality education available, accessible and affordable to all young persons in the age group of 14-18 years. With this vision in mind, the following is to be achieved

· To provide a Secondary school within 5 kms and Higher Secondary school within 7-10 kms

· Ensure universal access of secondary education by 2017

· Universal retention by 2020

· Providing access to secondary education with special references to economically weaker sections of the society, the educationally backward, the girls and the disabled children residing in rural areas and other marginalized categories like SC,ST,OBC and Educationally Backward Minorities


· To ensure that all secondary schools have physical facilities, staffs and supplies at least according to the prescribed standards through financial support in case of Government /Local Body and Government Aided Schools and appropriate regulatory mechanism in the case of other schools

· To improve access to secondary schooling to all young persons according to norms-through proximate location(say Secondary school within 5 kms and HSS within 7-10 kms),efficient and safe transport arrangements /residing facilities, depending on local circumstances including open schooling. However in hilly and difficult areas these norms can be relaxed. Preferably residential schools may be set up in such areas

· To ensure that no child is deprived of secondary education of satisfactory quality due to gender, socio economic, disability and other barriers

· To improve quality of secondary education resulting in enhanced intellectual, social and cultural learning

· To ensure that all students pursuing secondary education receive education of good quality

· Achievement of the above objectives would also, inter-alia, signify substantial progress in the direction of the common schooling system..


This scheme was launched in March, 2009 with the objective to enhance access to secondary education and to improve its quality. The implementation of the scheme started from 2009-10. It is envisaged to achieve an enrolment rate of 75% from 52.26% in 2005-06 at secondary stage of implementation of the scheme by providing a secondary school within a reasonable distance of any habitation. The other objectives include improving quality of education imparted at secondary level through making all secondary schools conform to prescribed norms, removing gender, socio-economic and disability barriers, providing universal access to secondary level education by 2017, i.e., by the end of 12th Five Year Plan and achieving universal retention by 2020.

Important Physical Facilities Provided Under The Scheme Are:

(i) Additional class rooms, (ii) Laboratories, (iii) Libraries, (iv) Art and crafts room, (v) Toiletblocks, (vi) Drinking water provisions and (vii) Residential Hostels for Teachers in remote areas.

Important Quality Interventions Provided Under The Scheme Are:

(i) appointment of additional teachers to reduce PTR to 30:1, (ii) focus on Science, Math and English education, (iii) In-service training of teachers, (iv) science laboratories, (v) ICT enabled education, (vi) curriculum reforms; and (vii) teaching learning reforms.

Important Equity Interventions Provided In The Scheme Are:

(i) special focus in micro planning (ii) preference to Ashram schools for upgradation (iii) preference to areas with concentration of SC/ST/Minority for opening of schools (iv) special enrolment drive for the weaker section (v) more female teachers in schools; and (vi) separate toilet blocks for girls.

Major Educational Commissions in India

Macaulay's Minute -1835 

Macaulay wrote his famous minute on Feb. 2, 1835 in which he vehemently criticized almost everything Indian: astronomy, culture, history, philosophy, religion etc., and praised everything western. On this basis he advocated the national system of education for India which could best serve the interest of the British Empire. His minutes was accepted and Lord William Bentinck issued his proclamation in march 1935 which set at rest all the controversies and led to the formulation of a policy which became the corner stone of all educational programmes during the British period in India.

Wood Despatch of 1854

Wood‘s Despatch of 1854 Charles Wood was a British Liberal politician and Member of Parliament. He served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1846 to 1852. Later he became the President of the Board of Control of the East India Company. In 1854 he sent the ―Wood‘s despatch to the Governor General Lord Dalhousie.

Hunter Commission – 1882 

Hunter commission made a thorough enquiry on the present condition of primary and secondary education in India. Based on the findings of its enquiry the commission made valuable recommendations to improve the conditions of primary and secondary education in India. Lord Ripon appointed the Indian Education Commission on 3rd February 1882, with Sir William Hunter as its Chairman. It is known as Hunter Commission of 1882.

Mudaliar Commission

The Secondary Education commission known as Mudaliar Commission was appointed bythe government of India in term of their Resolution to bring changes in the present education system and make it better for the Nation. Dr. A. Lakshmanswami Mudaliar was the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.

Indian Education Commission (1964-1966)

Popularly known as Kothari Commission, was an ad hoc commission set up by the Government of India to examine all aspects of the educational sector in India, to evolve a general pattern of education and to advise guidelines and policies for the development of education in India. It was formed on 14 July 1964 under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, then chairman of the University Grants Commission.

Wood Despatch of 1854


Wood‘s Despatch of 1854 -  Charles Wood was a British Liberal politician and Member of Parliament. He served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1846 to 1852. Later he became the President of the Board of Control of the East India Company. In 1854 he sent the ―Wood‘s despatch to the Governor General Lord Dalhousie. 

As per this despatch: 

1. An education department was to be set in every province. 

2. Universities on the model of the London University be established in big cities such as Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. 

3. At least one government school be opened in every district. 

4. Affiliated private schools should be given grant in aid. 

5. The Indian natives should be given training in their mother tongue also. 

Wood‘s Despatch is called Magna Carta of English Education in India. In accordance with Wood‘s despatch, Education Departments were established in every province and universities were opened at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1857 on the model of the London University. 

Later more universities were opened in Punjab in 1882 and at Allahabad 1887. 

Aims and Objectives of Educational Policy: 

The Despatch first throws light on the aims and objectives of educational policy of the Company in India. It gave highest priority to the responsibility of Indian Education overall other responsibilities of the Company. The Despatch had the following objectives in view: 

a) To impart Western knowledge, information about the western culture to the Indians. 

b) To educate the natives of India so that a class of public servants could be created. 

c) To promote intellectual development and also raise the moral character of the young generation. 

d) To develop practical and vocational skills of the Indians people so that more and more articles could be produced and also to create a good market for consumption of those goods. 

Major Recommendations 

Department of Education: The Wood‘s Despatch, for the first time, recommended the creation of a Department of Public Instruction in each of the five provinces of Bengal, Bombay, Madras, the Punjab and the North Western provinces. The head of the Department would be called the Director and he was to be assisted by a number of inspectors. The D.P.T. had to submit an annual report to the government about the educational progress in his province. 

Expansion of Mass Education: - Another major recommendation of the Despatch was expansion of mass education. It was observed that the common people were deprived of educational opportunities and therefore much emphasis was given on the increase of setting up primary, middle and high schools. The Downward Filtration Theory as proposed earlier was discarded and in its place importance to primary education was given. Elementary education was considered to be the foundation of the education system. 

Establishment of Universities: - The Despatch recommended the establishment of universities in the three Presidency towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. The universities were to be modelled after the London University and these were to have a senate comprising of a Chancellor, a Vice-Chancellor, and fellows who were nominated by the Government. 
The Universities would confer degrees to the successful candidates after passing the examinations, (of Science or Arts Streams) conducted by the Senate. The universities were to organize departments not only of English but also of Arabic, Sanskrit and Persian, as well as law and civil engineering. 

Grant - in-aid system: - The Wood‘s Despatch recommended the sanction of a grant-in-aid system in the Indian educational system. To educate the large number of people of India was a difficult task and so the grant-in-aid system was adopted by the government. Grants were given to those schools and colleges which satisfied the conditions given below:- 

a) The schools must provide secular education. 

b) The school management should run the school well. 

c) The school should agree to state inspection from time to time. 

d) The schools should follow any rule prescribed by the government for the regulation of the grant. 

e) The school must charge fees from the students. 

Grants were given to the schools for increasing the salaries teachers, construction of school buildings, granting scholarships to students, improving conditions of literaries, opening of science department etc. 

Teaching of Language: - The Wood‘s Despatch gave importance to teaching of English, but at the same time, it also stressed on the teaching of Indian languages. The Despatch realised that any acquaintance of European knowledge could be communicated to the common people and that could be conveyed to them only through learning their own mother tongue. Therefore the Despatch clearly stated that Indian languages as well as English should be used as media of instruction. 

Education of Women: - The Despatch recommended that the government should always support education for women. The wood‘s Despatch stated, ―The importance of female education in India cannot be over rated; and we have observed with pleasure the evidence which is now afforded of an increased desire on the part of many of the natives of India to give a good education to their daughters. 

By this means a far greater proportional impulse is imparted to the educational and moral tone of the people than by the education of men. The Despatch also encouraged the private enterprises to promote women education. The schools for girls were to be included among those to which grants-in-aid would be given. 

Training of Teachers: - The Wood‘s Despatch recommended the establishment of teacher training schools in each of the provinces. There should be training schools for teachers of engineering, medicine and law. The qualified teachers should be given better pay scales. The Despatch further emphasized on the provision of scholarships to the teachers during their training period. 

Professional Education: - The Wood‘s Despatch encouraged professional education. It recommended the establishment of medical, engineering law and other institutes of professional education. The Despatch stated that in order to develop vocational efficiency of people and also to make people realise that the British rule was progressive. Another reason for the encouragement of vocational education was to control the problem of unemployment. 

Introduction of network of Graded Schools all over India: - 
The Wood‘s Despatch recommended the establishment of a network of graded schools all over the country. At one end were the universities and the colleges, then the high schools followed by the middle schools and the bottom of the middle schools and at the bottom of the network were the primary schools, both government and indigenous. Both the Anglo-vernacular and vernacular schools were to be included in the same class.

This system was recommended in order to enable an individual to receive higher education after completing the different levels of schools education. 

The merits of Wood‟s Despatch 

· For the first time the government seriously realised the importance of a well planned education system. 

· It recommended the creation of a Department of Public Instruction and appointed a Director to head the Department. 

· It recommended the establishment of both government and indigenous schools to promote mass education. 

· The Despatch also recommended the establishment of three universities to higher education. 

· The Despatch encouraged vocational education and also training for teachers. 

· The Wood‘s Despatch recommended the teaching of English and Indian regional languages as well as classical languages like Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit. 

Failure of the government to implement many recommendations 

· English continued to be the medium of instruction and the common people were deprived of education. 

· The universities set up in 1857 imparted such education as to promote Western knowledge and culture in India. 

· In reality, there was no vocational education in the country. 

· Mainly because of the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857, most of the recommendations could not be implemented.

Hunter Commission – 1882


Hunter commission made a thorough enquiry on the present condition of primary and secondary education in India. Based on the findings of its enquiry the commission made valuable recommendations to improve the conditions of primary and secondary education in India. Lord Ripon appointed the Indian Education Commission on 3rd February 1882, with Sir William Hunter as its Chairman. It is known as Hunter Commission of 1882. 

The commission was appointed with the following aims: 

· To enquire into the manner in which effect had been given to the principles of the Despatch of 1854. 

· To assess the position of primary education in India and to suggest measures for its reform. 

· To enquire into the position of the State institutions and their importance. 

· To evaluate the work of missionaries in the field of education. 

· To enquire into Government attitude towards private enterprise. 

The Commission also undertook an enquiry into the conditions of secondary education and to suggest measures for its improvement. 

Accordingly the Commission made valuable recommendations for the development of primary education. The recommendations can be discussed under six heads:- 

(a) Policy 

(b) Legislation and Administration 

(c) Encouragement of indigenous schools 

(d) School Administration 

(e) Training of Teachers 

(f) Finance 

(a) Policy: 

(i) Primary education should be regarded as the instruction of the masses. It should be closely related to the practical aspect of the life of the masses. 

(ii) Primary education should be imparted through the medium of mother tongue. 

(iii) The Government should extend more patronage to primary education than before. 

(iv) In selecting persons for appointment to the government post of a lower order, preference should be given to the candidates who can read and write. 

(v) Primary education in backward districts, especially in those areas inhabited by aboriginal races, to be extended by the Department of Education through liberal grant-in-aid. 

(b)Legislation and Administration: 

(i) The control of primary education should be handed over to District and Municipal Boards. 

(ii) The local boards should deal with the whole system for primary education as regards to finance, management, expansion and inspection of primary education of the particular local area. 

(iii) Transfer of all government primary schools to the local boards was considered necessary. 

(c) Encouragement of Indigenous Schools: 

(i) Indigenous schools need encouragement for their improvement. Efforts should be made to encourage these schools. 

(ii) The Commission held the view that the Districts and Municipal Boards consisting of Indians would be more sympathetic to the indigenous schools than the Education Department and recommended that the work of assisting indigenous schools should be assigned to them. 

(iii) The Commission recommended that a system of ―Payment by Results‖ should be adopted in dealing with indigenous schools. 

(iv) The same standard of examination should not be maintained throughout the whole state. 

(D) School Administration: 

Regarding the management of the schools the Commission recommended. 

(i)School houses and furniture should be simple. 

(ii) The managers should be free to choose the text books for their schools. 

(iii) School hours and holidays should be adjusted according to local needs. 

(iv) Instruction in primary schools should be simplified. Practical subjects like native methods of arithmetic, accounts and menstruation, elements of natural and physical sciences, agriculture, health should be introduced. 

(v) Various native games and exercises should be introduced for physical development of the students. 

(vi) Night schools should be established wherever necessary. 

(E) Training of Teachers: 

(i)Normal schools should be established for the training of primary school teachers. 

(ii)There should be at least one Normal School in each division. 

(iii)The cost of Normal schools should be met from provincial fund. 

(F) Finance: 

(i)Every District and Municipal Board should maintain a separate Fund for primary education. 

(ii)The Provincial Government should grant one third of the total expenditure to the local bodies. 

(iii)The cost of maintaining, aiding and repairing of primary schools should be met from local fund. 

Major Recommendations of Hunter Commission of 1882 on Primary Education were. 

· Primary education should be regarded as education of the masses. 

· Education should be able to train the people for self-dependence. 

· Medium of Instruction in primary education should e the mother tongue. 

· Appointment of teachers should be made by the district authority and approved by the government. 

· School houses and furniture‘s should be simple and economical. 

· Normal Schools should be established for the training of teachers. 

· Curriculum should include useful subjects like agriculture, elements of natural and physical science and the native method of arithmetic and measurement etc. 

· School equipments should be economical and less expensive. 

· Spread of primary education for the tribal and backward people should be the responsibility of the Government. 

· Fees should be example to students on the basis of their financial difficulties Recommendations on Secondary Education 

Although the Hunter Commission recognized primary education as the prime concern of the state, it also made important recommendations on secondary education. These recommendations can be divided into two heads 

(A) Administrative Reform, and 

(B) Qualitative Improvement 

A) Administrative Reform: 

The Hunter Commission made some important recommendations to administrative reform of Secondary Education in India. The recommendations can be summed as given below: 

(i)Government should gradually withdraw itself from the field of secondary education. 

(ii)Expansion of secondary education should be entrusted to efficient private enterprise. 

(iii)Government should sanction great-in-aid to improve secondary education. 

(iv) It was felt necessary that the government should maintain some secondary schools, at least one Model High School in those districts where they may be required in the interest of the people. 

(v) To encourage the private enterprise, the commission suggested that the managers of Aided Schools might charge less fees in comparison to the neighbouring Government Schools. 

B) Qualitative Improvement: 

The Commission made many useful recommendations for the qualitative improvement of Secondary Education in India. Following are the major recommendations. 

(i)The Commission recommended that the curriculum at the secondary stage should be bifurcated as ―A course‖ and ―B course. 

(ii)―A course‖ should be prepared for students to go for higher study in Universities. 

(iii)―B course‖ should be of practical type meant for commercial and non-literary studies. 

(iv)The commission did not refer to the use of mother tongue as medium of instruction at the high school stage. It favoured English as the medium of instruction 

(v)The commission did not lay down any definite policy with regard to middle school so far as medium of Instruction is concerned. 

Major Recommendations of Hunter Commission on secondary education were 

· The administrative responsibility on Secondary education should be handed over to the efficient and educated people. 

· English should remain as medium of instruction in the Secondary stage. 

· The fees charged in aided secondary schools should be considerably lower than the fees charged in Government schools.

Macaulay's Minute -1835


Macaulay wrote his famous minute on Feb. 2, 1835 in which he vehemently criticized almost everything Indian: astronomy, culture, history, philosophy, religion etc., and praised everything western. On this basis he advocated the national system of education for India which could best serve the interest of the British Empire. His minutes was accepted and Lord William Bentinck issued his proclamation in march 1935 which set at rest all the controversies and led to the formulation of a policy which became the corner stone of all educational programmes during the British period in India.

Points of controversy on the interpretation of charter act of 1813 and the national system of education and Macaulay‟s role: 

At that time a major Orientalists and Anglicists controversy was going on in respect of the following issues:

1. Aim of education of the British policy: whether it should be to educate the classes in higher branches of learning or the masses in elementary education 
2. Type of knowledge: whether to preserve and promote oriental learning or to introduce western knowledge, culture and science 

3. Medium of instruction: whether English or Persian and Sanskrit in Bengal, English or Indian languages in Bombay and madras should become the medium of instruction 

4. Agency of education: whether the government should assume direct responsibility of educating the Indians or the indigenous system of the country to continue 

5. Missionaries: whether the shores of India to be thrown open to missionaries of all parts of the world to promote education or to a few missionaries or not at all. 

There were important English officers of the east India Company who were the supporters of the oriental point of view. 

Main Aim of Introducing English system of Education in India 

Macaulay wrote in his minute ―we must at present do our best to form a class of persons Indian in blood and colour and English in taste, opinions in morals and in intellect,Macaulay‘s arguments in favour of English: Macaulay rejected the claims of Arabic and Sanskrit as against English, because he considered that English was better than either of them. His arguments in favour of English were 

1. It is the key to modern knowledge and is therefore more useful than Arabic or Sanskrit. 

2. It stand pre eminent even among the language of the west in India, English is the language sponsored by the ruling class. It is likely to become the language of commerce throughout the seas of the east. 

3. It would bring about renaissance in India, just as Greek or Latin‘s did in England or just as the languages of western Europe in civilized Russia. 

4. The natives are desirous of being taught English and are not eager to learn Sanskrit or Arabic. 

5. It is possible to make the natives of this country good English scholar, and to that end our efforts ought to be directed. 

6. It was impossible to educate the body of people but it was possible through English education to bring about ―a class of persons Indian in blood and colour and English in taste, opinions in morals and in intellect‖, and that education was to filter down from them to the masses. 


1. A clear cut picture of the national system of education in India emerged 

2. The system proved very helpful in promoting the objectives for which it was planned 

3 English schools began to be established. 

4. English became the medium of instruction. 

5. Western arts and sciences became popular. 

6. Filtration theory of education emerged. 


1. Indian culture and philosophy receded to the background 

2. Vernacular languages began to be neglected 

3. Mass education was neglected 

4 Western culture made rapid strives. 

5. Arabic and Sanskrit languages found very few takers 

6. Arabic, maktabs and Sanskrit pathshalas saw gradual disappearance. 

Downward Filtration Theory of Education 

The British rulers thought that in order to run the administration peacefully and smoothly it was essential to make the higher classes‘ blind followers of the Britishers. This they wanted to achieve through educating classes. This theory meant ―education is to be filtered to the common people. Drop by drop , the education would go to the common public so that at due time it may take the form of a vast stream which remained water desert of the society starved for water for along time and high class of people would be educated and common people would gain influence from them.

Reasons for the Adoption of Filtration Theory 

1. The British rulers needed various types of employees to run the business and the government. 

2. The government did not have sufficient funds for educating the masses. 

3. The educated people educated on British lines through English medium would get higher posts in government services and then naturally they would use their influence in controlling the masses from going against the government rule. 

4. Higher classes educated through the medium of English would adopt English ways and in turn influence the lower classes. 

5. After educating some people, the responsibility of educating the masses could be left to them. 

Evaluation of the Filtration Theory 

The immediate aim of getting the people educated to run the various jobs in the administration was fully achieved. It also helped in creating a Faithfull class of people .The ultimate aim could not be fulfilled as the educated persons were cut off from the common masses. The common people began to look upon the educated classes as the favoured children of the British Government. The higher and richer classes began to copy British food, taste, behaviour and, manners. They become more and more self-centred and a great cleavage was created between the rich and poor.